Many interrelationships exist between research articles, data, software, and other resources used to produce scientific findings. A number of challenges, however, impede efforts to implement, standardize, and institutionalize cross-links between scholarly resources. This report outlines findings from a workshop titled "Data & Publication Linking" held January 5, 2016 in Washington, D.C., funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Open Access & Open Data initiative, and the NSF's EarthCube initiative. The workshop convened a discussion on the challenges and opportunities for cross-linking data and publication repositories. It brought together nineteen researchers and stakeholders from a range of sectors including data repositories, scholarly publishers, academic libraries, and scholarly research service providers. In this report, we present a diversity of perspectives and initiatives that can inform community-based solutions to scholarly resource cross-linking challenges.